President John F. Kennedy “was planning to end the Federal Reserve.”
President John F. Kennedy gives a broadcast address on civil rights in the White House, June 11, 1963. (AP)
I have written several postings related to Various topics including the military, Voting, the economy, religion and etc in America. A list of links have been provided at bottom of this article for your convenience. This article will, however address additional issues in these topics.
No, JFK did not plan to end the Federal Reserve
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- Experts who have studied economics and President John F. Kennedy’s policies said there was no evidence he was planning to end the Federal Reserve.
- An executive order that has been cited as support for this theory in the past did not limit the power of the Federal Reserve.
The theory that President John F. Kennedy was planning to end the Federal Reserve has been around for decades, but it is not supported by evidence.
The claim persists on Facebook, where a recent video was captioned: “JOHN F KENNEDY WAS PLANNING TO END THE FEDERAL RESERVE.”
In the video, a man appears to be speaking in front of a backdrop of a still photo of former President Donald Trump and his wife Melania, walking in a parade on Inauguration Day 2017. A small moving rhinoceros has been added to the page. The audio narration is a voice-over, and the words don’t match up with what the man on the screen appears to be saying.
This post was flagged as part of Facebook’s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about our partnership with Facebook.)
The claim that Kennedy was planning to end the Federal Reserve, a central bank that has independence and influence over monetary policy, has been the subject of various online postings and a book, so we wanted to see whether there was any truth to it.
Economic and government experts, a report from the Congressional Research Service, and Kennedy’s public statements all disprove the claim.
The theory goes like this: Kennedy signed Executive Order 11110, transferring power from the Federal Reserve to the U.S. Treasury by replacing Federal Reserve notes with “United States Notes,” according to an explanation in New York Magazine. “The government, such theorists contend, printed a small fortune (over $4 billion) in ‘Kennedy bills’ before his assassination. Just days afterward, ‘all of the money President Kennedy had created was destroyed, and not a word was said to the American people.’”
Kennedy’s economic policies
Ira Stoll, the author of a book about Kennedy’s economic policies, “JFK, Conservative,” told PolitiFact that in his research, he found no evidence that Kennedy was planning to end the Federal Reserve. What Kennedy would think of the Federal Reserve now is hard to know, because it changed under President Richard Nixon, when the dollar was de-linked from gold, Stoll said. Kennedy’s assassination makes people theorize about what he would have done, he said.
While Kennedy and the Federal Reserve clashed, there is no evidence that he ever proposed getting rid of it, said Nicholas F. Jacobs, an assistant professor of government at Colby College, who has written about economics in the Kennedy era.
“In fact, all evidence points to the idea that the Federal Reserve System was a necessary component of Kennedy’s larger economic plan,” Jacobs said.
By Sara Swann • August 23, 2022
In 1962, Kennedy supported legislation to reorganize the terms of the Federal Reserve, so that the chair and the vice chair are appointed when the president begins their term of office, Jacobs said. The proposal would have taken effect in 1965.
“Importantly, the proposed legislation would first take place after Kennedy’s first term would have ended, so it was not an attempt to cajole existing members,” Jacobs said. The terms of the chair and vice chair were staggered then, as they are now, in such a way to prevent a president from having undue influence over Fed leadership. When a new president is sworn in, they deal with the Federal Reserve’s existing leadership.
The Congressional Research Service in 1996 debunked common myths about the Federal Reserve, including a theory from author Jim Marrs that Kennedy’s purported desire to rein in the Federal Reserve somehow led to his assassination.
The theory is supposedly supported by Executive Order 11110, which proponents say was intended to strip the Federal Reserve of its power.
In reality, if anything, the executive order enhanced the Fed’s power.
Kennedy’s Executive Order 11110 and related legislation decreased the circulation of Silver Certificates, with Federal Reserve Notes taking their place, the CRS said. Kennedy made the change due to the rising cost of silver and increased economic activity, which created a need for more small-denomination currency.
In two speeches just before his 1960 election, Kennedy said he was committed to keeping the Federal Reserve.
“I do not, let me make clear, advocate any changes in the constitution of the Federal Reserve System. It is important to keep the day-to-day operations of the Federal Reserve removed from political pressures,” he said in New York City in October 1960. He said something similar that same month in Philadelphia.
Executive Order 1110
Executive Order 1110 gave the US the ability to create its own money backed by silver. …http://www.john-f-kennedy.net/executiveorder11110.htm On June 4, 1963, a little known attempt was made to strip the Federal Reserve Bank of its power to loan money to the government at interest. On that day President John F. Kennedy signed Executive Order No. 11110 that returned to the U.S. government the power to issue currency, without going through the Federal Reserve. Mr. Kennedy’s order gave the Treasury the power “to issue silver certificates against any silver bullion, silver, or standard silver dollars in the Treasury.” This meant that for every ounce of silver in the U.S. Treasury’s vault, the government could introduce new money into circulation. In all, Kennedy brought nearly $4.3 billion in U.S. notes into circulation. The ramifications of this bill are enormous. With the stroke of a pen, Mr. Kennedy was on his way to putting the Federal Reserve Bank of New York out of business. If enough of these silver certificats were to come into circulation they would have eliminated the demand for Federal Reserve notes. This is because the silver certificates are backed by silver and the Federal Reserve notes are not backed by anything. Executive Order 11110 could have prevented the national debt from reaching its current level, because it would have given the government the ability to repay its debt without going to the Federal Reserve and being charged interest in order to create the new money. Executive Order 11110 gave the U.S. the ability to create its own money backed by silver. After Mr. Kennedy was assassinated just five months later, no more silver certificates were issued. The Final Call has learned that the Executive Order was never repealed by any U.S. President through an Executive Order and is still valid.
Why then has no president utilized it? Virtually all of the nearly $6 trillion in debt has been created since 1963, and if a U.S. president had utilized Executive Order 11110 the debt would be nowhere near the current level. Perhaps the assassination of JFK was a warning to future presidents who would think to eliminate the U.S. debt by eliminating the Federal Reserve’s control over the creation of money. Mr. Kennedy challenged the government of money by challenging the two most successful vehicles that have ever been used to drive up debt – war and the creation of money by a privately-owned central bank. His efforts to have all troops out of Vietnam by 1965 and Executive Order 11110 would have severely cut into the profits and control of the New York banking establishment. As America’s debt reaches unbearable levels and a conflict emerges in Bosnia that will further increase America’s debt, one is force to ask, will President Clinton have the courage to consider utilizing Executive Order 11110 and, ifso, is he willing to pay the ultimate price for doing so?
Executive Order 11110 AMENDMENT OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 10289 AS AMENDED, RELATING TO THE PERFORMANCE OF CERTAIN FUNCTIONS AFFECTING THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, it is ordered as follows: Section 1. Executive Order No. 10289 of September 19, 1951, as amended, is hereby further amended- By adding at the end of paragraph 1 thereof the following subparagraph (j): (j) The authority vested in the President by paragraph (b) of section 43 of the Act of May 12,1933, as amended (31 U.S.C.821(b)), to issue silver certificates against any silver bullion, silver, or standard silver dollars in the Treasury not then held for redemption of any outstanding silver certificates, to prescribe the denomination of such silver certificates, and to coin standard silver dollars and subsidiary silver currency for their redemption and — By revoking subparagraphs (b) and (c) of paragraph 2 thereof. Sec. 2. The amendments made by this Order shall not affect any act done, or any right accruing or accrued or any suit or proceeding had or commenced in any civil or criminal cause prior to the date of this Order but all such liabilities shall continue and may be enforced as if said amendments had not been made. John F. Kennedy The White House, June 4, 1963. Of course, the fact that both JFK and Lincoln met the the same end is a mere coincidence.
Abraham Lincoln’s Monetary Policy, 1865 (Page 91 of Senate document 23.) Money is the creature of law and the creation of the original issue of money should be maintained as the exclusive monopoly of national Government. Money possesses no value to the State other than that given to it by circulation. Capital has its proper place and is entitled to every protection. The wages of men should be recognized in the structure of and in the social order as more important than the wages of money.
No duty is more imperative for the Government than the duty it owes the People to furnish them with a sound and uniform currency, and of regulating the circulation of the medium of exchange so that labour will be protected from a vicious currency, and commerce will be facilitated by cheap and safe exchanges. The available supply of Gold and Silver being wholly inadequate to permit the issuance of coins of intrinsic value or paper currency convertible into coin in the volume required to serve the needs of the People, some other basis for the issue of currency must be developed, and some means other than that of convertibility into coin must be developed to prevent undue fluctuation in the value of paper currency or any other substitute for money of intrinsic value that may come into use.
The monetary needs of increasing numbers of People advancing towards higher standards of living can and should be met by the Government. Such needs can be served by the issue of National Currency and Credit through the operation of a National Banking system .The circulation of a medium of exchange issued and backed by the Government can be properly regulated and redundancy of issue avoided by withdrawing from circulation such amounts as may be necessary by Taxation, Redeposit, and otherwise. Government has the power to regulate the currency and creditof the Nation. Government should stand behind its currency and credit and the Bank deposits of the Nation. No individual should suffer a loss of money through depreciation or inflated currency or Bank bankruptcy. Government possessing the power to create and issue currency and creditas money and enjoying the right to withdraw both currency and credit from circulation by Taxation and otherwise need not and should not borrow capital at interest as a means of financing Governmental work and public enterprise. The Government should create, issue, and circulate all the currency and credit needed to satisfy the spending power of the Government and the buying power of the consumers.
The privilege of creating and issueing money is not only the supreme prerogative of Government, but it is the Governments greatest creative opportunity. By the adoption of these principles the long felt want for a uniform medium will be satisfied. The taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest, discounts, and exchanges. The financing of all public enterprise, the maintenance of stable Government and ordered progress, and the conduct of the Treasury will become matters of practical administration. The people can and will be furnished with a currency as safe as their own Government. Money will cease to be master and become the servant of humanity. Democracy will rise superior to the money power.
Some information on the Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve, a Private Corporation One of the most common concerns among people who engage in any effort to reduce their taxes is, “Will keeping my money hurt the government’s ability to pay it’s bills?” As explained in the first article in this series, the modern withholding tax does not, and wasn’t designed to, pay for government services. What it does do, is pay for the privately-owned Federal Reserve System. Black’s Law Dictionary defines the “Federal Reserve System” as, “Network of twelve central banks to which most national banks belong and to which state chartered banks may belong. Membership rules require investment of stock and minimum reserves.”
Privately-owned banks own the stock of the Fed. This was explained in more detail in the case of Lewis v. United States, Federal Reporter, 2nd Series, Vol. 680, Pages 1239, 1241 (1982), where the court said: Each Federal Reserve Bank is a separate corporation owned by commercial banks in its region. The stock-holding commercial banks elect two thirds of each Bank’s nine member board of directors. Similarly, the Federal Reserve Banks, though heavily regulated, are locally controlled by their member banks. Taking another look at Black’s Law Dictionary, we find that these privately owned banks actually issue money: Federal Reserve Act. Law which created Federal Reserve banks which act as agents in maintaining money reserves, issuing money in the form of bank notes, lending money to banks, and supervising banks. Administered by Federal Reserve Board (q.v.).
The FED banks, which are privately owned, actually issue, that is, create, the money we use. In 1964 the House Committee on Banking and Currency, Subcommittee on Domestic Finance, at the second session of the 88th Congress, put out a study entitled Money Facts which contains a good description of what the FED is: The Federal Reserve is a total money-making machine.It can issue money or checks. And it never has a problem of making its checks good because it can obtain the $5 and $10 bills necessary to cover its check simply by asking the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Engraving to print them. As we all know, anyone who has a lot of money has a lot of power. Now imagine a group of people who have the power to create money. Imagine the power these people would have. This is what the Fed is.
No man did more to expose the power of the Fed than Louis T. McFadden, who was the Chairman of the House Banking Committee back in the 1930s. Constantly pointing out that monetary issues shouldn’t be partisan, he criticized both the Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt administrations. In describing the Fed, he remarked in the Congressional Record, House pages 1295 and 1296 on June 10, 1932, that: Mr. Chairman,we have in this country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal reserve banks.
The Federal Reserve Board, a Government Board, has cheated the Government of the United States and he people of the United States out of enoughmoney to pay the national debt. The depredations and the iniquities of the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal reserve banks acting together have cost this country enough money to pay the national debt several times over. This evil institution has impoverished and ruined the people of the UnitedStates; has bankrupted itself, and has practically bankrupted our Government. It has done this through the maladministration of that law by which the Federal Reserve Board, and through the corrupt practices of the moneyed vultures who control it.
Some people think the Federal reserve banks are United States Government institutions. They are not Government institutions. They are private credit monopolies which prey upon the people of the United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign customers; foreign and domestic speculators and swindlers; and rich and predatory money lenders. In that dark crew of financial pirates there are those who would cut a man’s throat to get a dollar out of his pocket; there are those who send money into States to buy votes to control our legislation; and there are those who maintain an international propaganda for the purpose of deceiving us and of wheedling us into the granting of new concessions which will permit them to cover up their past misdeeds and set again in motion their gigantic train of crime.
Those 12 private credit monopolies were deceitfully and disloyally foisted upon this country by bankers who camehere from Europe and who repaid us for our hospitality by undermining our American institutions. The Fed basically works like this: The government granted its power to create money to the Fed banks. They create money, then loan it back to the government charging interest. The government levies income taxes to pay the interest on the debt. On this point, it’s interesting to note that the Federal Reserve act and the sixteenth amendment, which gave congress the power to collect income taxes, were both passed in 1913. The incredible power of the Fed over the economy is universally admitted. Some people, especially in the banking and academic communities, even support it. On the other hand, there are those, both in the past and in the present, that speak out against it. One of these men was President John F. Kennedy. His efforts were detailed in Jim Marrs’ 1990 book, Crossfire: Another overlooked aspect of Kennedy’s attempt to reform American society involves money. Kennedy apparently reasoned that by returning to the constitution, which states that only Congress shall coin and regulate money, the soaring national debt could be reduced by not paying interest to the bankers of the Federal Reserve System, who print paper money then loan it to the government at interest. He moved in this area on June 4, 1963, by signing Executive Order 11,110 which called for the issuance of $4,292,893,815 in United States Notes through the U.S. Treasury rather than the traditional Federal Reserve System. That same day, Kennedy signed a bill changing the backing of one and two dollar bills from silver to gold, adding strength to the weakened U.S. currency.
Kennedy’s comptroller of the currency, James J. Saxon, had been at odds with the powerful Federal Reserve Board for some time, encouraging broader investment and lending powers for banks that were not part of the Federal Reserve system. Saxon also had decided that non-Reserve banks could underwrite state and local general obligation bonds, again weakening the dominant Federal Reserve banks. A number of “Kennedy bills” were indeed issued – the author has a five dollar bill in his possession with the heading “United States Note” – but were quickly withdrawn after Kennedy’s death. According to information from the Library of the Comptroller of the Currency, Executive Order 11,110 remains in effect today, although successive administrations beginning with that of President Lyndon Johnson apparently have simply ignored it and instead returned to the practice of paying interest on Federal Reserve notes. Today we continue to use Federal Reserve Notes, and the deficit is at an all-time high. The point being made is that the IRS taxes you pay aren’t used for government services. It won’t hurt you, or the nation, to legally reduce or eliminate your tax liability.
A Facebook post said Kennedy “was planning to end the Federal Reserve.”
Experts said that there is no evidence to support this claim. The Congressional Research Service, more than 30 years after Kennedy’s death, said that an executive order that proponents of this claim hold up as evidence actually does the opposite of what they suggest.
JFK vs. Federal Reserve
On June 4, 1963, a virtually unknown Presidential decree, Executive Order 11110, was signed by President John Fitzgerald Kennedy with the intention to strip the Federal Reserve Bank of its power to loan money to the United States Federal Government at interest. With the stroke of a pen, President Kennedy declared that the privately owned Federal Reserve Bank would soon be out of business. This matter has been exhaustively researched by the Christian Common Law Institute through the Federal Register and Library of Congress, and the Institute has conclude that President Kennedy’s Executive Order has never been repealed, amended, or superceded by any subsequent Executive Order. In simple terms, it is still valid.
When John Fitzgerald Kennedy, author of Profiles in Courage, signed this Order, it returned to the federal government, specifically to the Treasury Department, the Constitutional power to create and issue currency — money — without going through the privately owned Federal Reserve Bank. President Kennedy’s Executive Order 11110 gave the Treasury Department the explicit authority: “to issue silver certificates against any silver bullion, silver, or standard silver dollars in the Treasury” [the full text is displayed below]. This means that for every ounce of silver in the U.S. Treasury’s vault, the government could introduce new money into circulation based on the silver bullion physically held therein. As a result, more than $4 billion in United States Notes were brought into circulation in $2 and $5 denominations. Although $10 and $20 United States Notes were never circulated, they were being printed by the Treasury Department when Kennedy was assassinated.
Certainly it’s obvious that President Kennedy knew that the Federal Reserve Notes being circulated as “legal currency” were contrary to the Constitution of the United States, which calls for issuance of “United States Notes” as interest-free and debt-free currency backed by silver reserves in the U.S. Treasury. Comparing a “Federal Reserve Note” issued from the private central bank of the United States (i.e., the Federal Reserve Bank a/k/a Federal Reserve System), with a “United States Note” from the U.S. Treasury (as issued by President Kennedy’s Executive Order), the two almost look alike, except one says “Federal Reserve Note” on the top while the other says “United States Note”. In addition, the Federal Reserve Note has a green seal and serial number while the United States Note has a red seal and serial number. Following President Kennedy’s assassination on November 22, 1963, the United States Notes he had issued were immediately taken out of circulation, and Federal Reserve Notes continued to serve as the “legal currency” of the nation.
Kennedy knew that if the silver-backed United States Notes were widely circulated, they would eliminated the demand for Federal Reserve Notes. This is a simple matter of economics. USNs were backed by silver and FRNs were (still are) backed by nothing of intrinsic value. As a result of Executive Order 11110, the national debt would have prevented from reaching its current level (almost all of the $9 trillion in federal debt has been created since 1963). Executive Order 11110 also granted the U.S. Government the power to repay past debt without further borrowing from the privately owned Federal Reserve which charged both principle and interest and all new “money” it “created.” Finally, Executive Order 11110 gave the U.S.A. the ability to create its own money backed by silver, again giving money real value.
Perhaps President Kennedy’s assassination was a warning to future presidents not to interfere with the private Federal Reserve’s control over the creation of money. For, with true courage, JFK had boldly challenged the two most successful vehicles that have ever been used to drive up debt: 1) war (i.e., the Vietnam war); and, 2) the creation of money by a privately owned central bank. His efforts to have all U.S. troops out of Vietnam by 1965 combined with Executive Order 11110 would have destroyed the profits and control of the private Federal Reserve Bank.
Fact Check: NO Evidence Presidents Lincoln And Kennedy Were Assassinated For Trying To End Federal Reserve
Were President Abraham Lincoln and President John F. Kennedy both assassinated for trying to end the Federal Reserve banking system? No, there is no evidence to back this up: The two presidents, who were both shot and killed while in office, have been the subjects of many questions and conspiracy theories for decades, and this meme has double misconceptions.
These are the only two presidents who ever attempted to end the federal reserve banking system.
What else do they have in common?
Lincoln was president from March 4, 1861, to April 15, 1865, when he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth in Washington, D.C.
The Federal Reserve Banking System — the central bank of the United States — did not exist when Lincoln was president. It was created well after Lincoln’s death — on December 23, 1913, by President Woodrow Wilson.
So the meme cannot be not referring to what is today’s Federal Reserve.
One likely source for the meme has its roots in economic history: During the Civil War, President Lincoln worked with Congress to pass a law allowing the government to print new paper money nicknamed “Greenbacks” because the bills had green ink on the back. The Legal Tender Act authorized the printing of $150 million of the new money in 1862. Prior to this act, the only legal tender in the United States was gold or silver coins.
Lincoln was also at war with the New York banks, who were backed by British money up to and during the Civil War. Instead of having the banks lend the government money, Lincoln worked with Congress to pass the Legal Tender Act.
There have been suggestions over time that this equated to Lincoln attempting to end the Federal Reserve System — even though the actual Fed had yet to be established.
As for Kennedy, he was president from January 20, 1961, until he was assassinated on November 22, 1963. The claim that he “attempted to end the federal reserve banking system,” is also mistaken.
That idea surrounding this claim is based on Kennedy’s Executive Order 11,110, which had to do with the issuance of silver certificates as currency.
Here is an Associated Press news story from June 6, 1963, from the Spokane Daily Chronicle about Kennedy signing the bill. As the story states, at the time all one-dollar bills were silver certificates backed by silver bullion while other currency denominations were federal reserve notes backed by the Federal Reserve.
The assassination claims hold that Kennedy earned the wrath of the federal reserve system with this bill by giving the Treasury Department more power to issue currency in the form of silver certificates. But the AP story says the executive order actually allowed the government to continue printing silver certificates only “for as long as necessary,” while silver certificates were gradually taken out of circulation so silver bullion could be melted down for coinage.
The order was done as an “administrative convenience,” according to a 1996 report titled “Money and the Federal Reserve System: Myth and Reality” from the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress.
Publiceye.org debunked the assassination theory tying Kennedy’s death to the executive order in an article updated in September 2000.
Presidential Executive Order 11,110 is quite infamous among conspiracy buffs. Jim Marrs, author of Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy, writes that the order instructs the Treasury secretary to issue about $4.2 billion in silver certificates as a form of currency in place of Federal Reserve Notes. Written by John F. Kennedy, Marrs also speculates this order was part of a larger plan by Kennedy to reduce the influence of the Federal Reserve by giving the Treasury more power to issue currency. The order was signed June 4, 1963. A few months later, of course, Kennedy was killed, and conspiracy theorists hypothesize a link between the murder and E.O. 11,110. They argue that the Federal Reserve was somehow involved in the assassination to protect its power over monetary policy.
The executive order modifies a pre-existing order issued by Harry Truman in 1951. E.O. 10,289 states “The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby designated and empowered to perform the following-described functions of the President without the approval, ratification, or other action of the President…” The order then lists tasks (a) through (h) which the Treasurer can now do without bothering the President. None of the powers assigned to the Treasury in E.O. 10,289 relate to money or to monetary policy. Kennedy’s E.O. 11,110 then instructs that.
In summary, E.O. 11,110 did not create new authority to issue additional silver certificates. In fact, its intention was to ease the process for their removal so that small denomination Federal Reserve Notes could replace them in accordance with a law Kennedy himself signed.
One of many assassination conspiracies connects Kennedy’s signing of the bill to his assassination five months later. And while many theories about Kennedy’s death have swirled since he was shot in his motorcade in Dallas, history holds that the lone assassin was Lee Harvey Oswald.
There is no evidence of a connection between Oswald and Booth, who lived and died in different centuries. Nor is there anything but speculation and theory that the different money policies instituted by Lincoln and Kennedy were behind their assassinations.
Nearly a century after Lincoln was assassinated for issuing Greenbacks, President John F. Kennedy found himself in the same crosshairs. Kennedy had announced his opposition to offshore tax havens and proposed eliminating the depletion allowance for large oil companies. Kennedy’s economic policies were publicly attacked by Fortune magazine, the Wall Street Journal and the New World Order spokespeople. Even Treasury Secretary Douglas Dillon voiced opposition to the JFK proposals.
Kennedy’s time on earth was sealed due to these decisions in June 1963 when he authorized the issuance of more than $4 billion in United States Notes by his Treasury Department. This was in direct contradiction to the practices of the private Federal Reserve international banking cartel.
Lee Harvey Oswald was conveniently gunned down by Jack Ruby. Ruby himself died from a fast-growing cancer he had strangely contracted while in jail. An insider told author A. J. Weberman in 1994, “The answer to the Kennedy assassination is with the Federal Reserve Bank. Don’t underestimate that. It’s wrong to blame it on Angleton and the CIA per se only. This is only one finger on the same hand. The people who supply the money are above the CIA”.
US citizens ever since were terrorized into silence. If they could kill the President, they could kill anyone.
This Brotherhood I have just described controls every aspect of the global economic network. This includes certain major international banks and insurers, as well as indirectly controlling the media, the key intelligence agencies, and thus the government. The one exception – they did not control Trump. That is why you witnessed one of the most amazing Intel battles of the century when he was President that was waged against him.
Their activities are coordinated through the secret societies and one of their most important vehicles is the City of London-House of Windsor operation called the Club of the Isles. It was named after King Edward VII, Queen Victoria’s son, who was the first to carry the title Prince of the Isles. The title is held today by Prince Charles.
This very same group developed the so-called Trump Dossier. It was bought lock, stock and barrel by a variety of Washington people, including some of those in Congress and the Senate. The last several years have proven these people are in the same class as the Village Idiots of old. A total lack of critical thinking is their brand and identifying feature. Let’s look briefly at the so-called Dossier, and then we’ll go down the rabbit hole and look at the Private “Federal Reserve.”
Who killed JFK? The Kennedy conspiracy theories
President John F. Kennedy was assassinated 55 years ago sparking decades of speculation
21 NOV 2018
Tomorrow marks the 55th anniversary of the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States.
On 22 November 1963, Kennedy and his wife Jackie drove through Dallas, Texas, in an open-topped car, before he was shot and killed.
The murder of the popular Democratic leader “permanently transformed American politics”, CNN says, “thrusting the nation toward a long overdue – and still unfinished – reckoning with our democracy’s painful history of violence and racism”.
The official account states that former US Marine Lee Harvey Oswald shot and killed Kennedy from the nearby Texas School Book Depository building. But ever since the murder, conspiracy theories ranging from the mad to the plausible have circulated, thanks in no small part to the subsequent murder of Oswald himself in the immediate aftermath of the crime.
The “official” version
In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded Kennedy was killed by a lone assassin – Lee Harvey Oswald – while three other investigations, in 1968, 1975, and 1978-79, confirmed the commission’s conclusion that JFK had been killed by two shots from behind
However, the 1978-79 House select committee on assassinations decided there was a high probability that a second gunman fired at Kennedy and that he was “probably assassinated as a conspiracy”.
This finding was itself rejected five years ago by a team of historians and retired secret service officers, who used the latest digital technology to analyse all available film of the shooting and offered a “categorical confirmation” that Oswald acted alone.
But the competing conclusions of the FBI investigations and government commissions have encouraged many to reject the official version.
The ‘magic bullet’ theory
Oswald fired just three bullets in Dallas. But he killed JFK and badly wounded Governor John Connally who was sitting in front of the president. The Warren Commission – the investigation into JFK’s killing set up in 1963 – came up with the “single-bullet theory” to explain how Oswald did so much damage with just three rounds.
It posits that both men were hit by a single bullet which “entered JFK’s upper back, exited his throat, and then struck Connally, breaking a rib and shattering his wrist, and finally coming to rest in his thigh,” says the Mary Ferrell Foundation. Sceptics say the trajectory was fanciful and re-named it the “magic bullet theory”. It’s just one reason why conspiracy theorists think more than one shooter was involved.
The grassy knoll
Most JFK conspiracy theories pivot around the idea that Oswald wasn’t acting alone. When the president was hit by the bullet that killed him, the motorcade was passing a grassy knoll on the north side of Elm Street. Newspaper photographs record that shortly after the shooting, police arrested three tramps found in a railroad car behind the knoll. Because the men were clean-shaven and well dressed there was speculation that they were CIA assassins rather than hobos.
During his presidential campaign Donald Trump insinuated that Senator Ted Cruz’s father was connected to the assassination. His comments were based on a photo published by the National Inquirer, which the tabloid claims shows Rafael Cruz distributing leaflets with Oswald just months before he murdered the president.
Trump seized on the story to attack his then-rival, saying: “I mean, what was he doing – what was he doing with Oswald shortly before the death? Before the shooting?” The story, and Trump’s comments, were quickly rubbished by Cruz and the press. “Now let’s be clear: This is nuts. This is not a reasonable position. This is just kooky,” Cruz told USA Today. “I guess I should go ahead and admit yes my dad killed JFK, he is secretly Elvis, and Jimmy Hoffa is buried in his backyard.”
The long list of culprits
If Oswald was a paid assassin rather than a disaffected loner, who was writing his pay cheques? The list of candidates is long, but some names are put forward more than most. They are:
The CIA: The idea that the assassination was a CIA plot sounds bizarre, but conspiracy theorists suggest the president’s alleged comment that he wanted to “splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter it to the winds” made him an agency target. Other theories suggest that one of the tramps (see above) was E Howard Hunt, a former CIA operative who was involved in the ill-fated Bay of Pigs operation to oust Cuban leader Fidel Castro.
For JFK expert, Dave Perry, this is the most interesting theory. “The problem is, of all of them, this is one I can’t debunk,” he told CNN.
Perry points out that a former head of the CIA, Allen Dulles, was a member of the Warren Commission, the special Johnson-appointed panel in charge of the official investigation of the assassination. The commission determined that Oswald acted alone.
The Mafia: Why would the mafia want JFK dead? Because his brother, Robert, was turning up the heat on organised crime. Robert was the US attorney general at the time and his “anti-mafia crusade” had led to a sharp increase in the number of prosecutions of senior mafia figures.
The KGB: “The Soviets had a palpable, powerful motive [to kill JFK]: to gain revenge for the humiliation of the USSR in the 1962 Cuban missile crisis,” says Scientia Press. Oswald was a communist and had spent time in the USSR. His “Russian odyssey” afforded the KGB “many opportunities to interact with him”.
Lyndon B Johnson: In 2003, a Gallup poll revealed that 20% of Americans believed Johnson had something to do with JFK’s death. Theories include the vice president’s “desire to become president, his need to cover up scandals, and his involvement with the FBI”, says the Environmental Graffiti website.
This is based primarily on statements made by Madeleine Brown, who alleged to have had an affair with Johnson but who Perry describes as a “crackpot”. Brown long claimed she attended a party the night before the assassination with ex-Vice President Richard Nixon and FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover in which LBJ whispered into her ear, “After tomorrow, those Kennedys will never embarrass me again. That’s no threat. That’s a promise.”
Not only does Perry say this LBJ could not have been at the party, he also suggests a possible source for the origins of the rumours he was behind the attack.
“A lot of Texans didn’t like Johnson – they thought he was a crook – so as a result, they started creating this fiction after the assassination where he wanted Kennedy out so he could be president,” Perry said.
The Little Green Men: Another theory suggests JFK was killed for showing too much interest in “alien activity”. There are two “crucial” pieces of evidence backing this up. The first is a letter written by JFK to the CIA in which he demands to see secret UFO files. The second is a note from a senior CIA official that says “we cannot allow” the president to see the classified material.
The Illuminati: The secretive powerbrokers who control the world are obvious candidates for a JFK conspiracy theory. The president fell foul of the Illuminati, it has been suggested, because he wanted to end the Vietnam War, a conflict that was paying the “shadowy bankers” handsome dividends. The Illuminati were also “angered” by JFK’s attempts to “rein in” the power of the US Federal Reserve, triggering a deadly backlash.
The military industrial complex: The theory that the so-called military industrial complex, a phrase coined by President Dwight Eisenhower to describe the informal alliance between a nation’s military and its arms industry, was behind the assassination has gained traction over time.
Conspiracy theorists point to Kennedy’s intention to pull US troops out of Vietnam, a decision later reversed under President Johnson, as the motive the army (and those looking to profit from the war) had to get rid of him.
Jackie Kennedy: One of the more far-fetched theories alleges that JFK’s wife killed him herself. Could the president’s wife have been a secret assassin? Some theorists claim that Jackie Kennedy hid a pistol in a nearby flowerpot after the assassination. But, as the Daily Mirror notes, “many of those who make the claim seem to overlook the fact that she was being watched in an open limousine by thousands of onlookers”.
The man with the black umbrella: Some witnesses point to a “mysterious” man holding an umbrella as JFK’s motorcade drove by. The day of the assassination was bright and clear; no one in the crowd is wearing a raincoat or carrying an umbrella except one man. And that man is standing right where the shots were fired.
Investigator Josiah Thompson says: “The only person under any umbrella in all of Dallas [is] standing right where the shots come into the limousine. Can anyone come up with a non-sinister explanation for this?”
When challenged to explain himself, the man carrying the umbrella, Louie Steven Witt, testified before the house select committee on assassinations that the umbrella was a protest against the appeasement policies of JFK’s father. The umbrella was a reference to the trademark accessory of Neville Chamberlain, nicknamed the Umbrella Man, who prior to the Second World War had advocated making concessions to the Nazis to try to avoid conflict. Many accepted Witt’s explanation.
The driver: Proponents of this theory suggest secret service agent William Greer, the driver of JFK’s limousine, pulled the trigger. But others, including JFK Lancer, say that what initially looks like a handgun when seen at speed is simply the reflection of the sun on the hair of Greer’s colleague Roy Kellerman.
Friendly fire: Not all sceptics rely on elaborate conspiracies to explain the killing. A simpler alternative suggests that one of JFK’s own bodyguards fired the fatal shot by accident. As Oswald fired on the president, the theory goes, Secret Service agent George Hickey cocked his automatic rifle to return fire. When the car he was in stopped suddenly, he discharged his weapon by mistake. “It’s not sexy. It’s not rife with intrigue,” Bonar Menninger, a journalist and proponent of the theory, told NBC News. “But for that reason, in my mind, it’s extremely compelling – because it’s the only theory that hews tightly to the available evidence.” Hickey sued for libel in 1995, but a judge ruled that the statute of limitations had passed and dismissed the case.
What have declassified documents revealed?
In April 2018, the National Archive released previously withheld documents in accordance with the JFK Assassination Records Collection Act (1992). Although most of the documents (88%) have been accessible by the public since the late 1990s, many have been intrigued as to what details the remainder might entail.
The papers marked “for the president’s eyes only” revealed how Oswald planned to escape, confirming rumours that he visited the Cuban and former Soviet Union embassies in Mexico City in September that year.
Intelligence chiefs believe this was to arrange for visas so that he could travel to the USSR via Havana. “But conspiracy theorists looking for CIA plots are likely to be disappointed as many of the intelligence briefs remain partially blacked out,” Sky News points out.
One historian who has been researching the trove of declassified documents hopes to put some of the wild theories about JFK’s assassination to rest.
“I’ve gone through each of the conspiracies one by one, trying to line them up, and could just never make [them] jump,” Timothy Naftali told The Guardian. “I believe it was Lee Harvey Oswald [who killed Kennedy].”
The Cambridge connection
One of the more bizarre revelations to come out of the latest classified file release was reports that a British local newspaper, the Cambridge News, received an anonymous call about “some big news” in the US, shortly before JFK was assassinated.
According to a declassified CIA memo the call was made to a senior reporter at the newspaper at 18:05 GMT on 22 November 1963, 25 minutes before the first shot was fired.
Reported by MI5 and passed on to the CIA, the memo read: “The caller said only that the Cambridge News reporter should call the American Embassy in London for some big news and then hung up.”
“The Cambridge reporter had never received a call of this kind before, and MI5 state that he is known to them as a sound and loyal person with no security record.”
In a video posted on the newspaper’s website shortly after the memo was made public, the paper’s current chief reporter Chris Elliott, said “no one has ever been able to establish whether that call was actually made” but the fact that it might have been made came to light in the 1980s after a document was discovered allegedly from the CIA reporting the incident.
The Zapruder film
If there is one piece of evidence that has served to both dampen and fuel Kennedy conspiracy theories more than any other it is the 26-second Zapruder film.
Recorded with an eight-millimetre camera by Dallas dressmaker and amateur filmmaker, Abraham Zapruder, it documents the shooting of the president from beginning to end just 486 frames.
It has been described as the most important 26 seconds of film ever recorded and has become “one of the great cultural icons of our time” says The Guardian, loved by Andy Warhol and conspiracists alike.
But while the film, which is actually in two parts, is instantly recognisable, its history is also the subject of intense controversy. Shown to the FBI and Secret Service shortly after the assassination, Zapruder was left with the original copy which he entrusted to Life magazine out of respect for the Kennedy family.
Although the magazine published split-second stills from the film in a special issue a week after shooting the full film was kept underwraps from the public for the next 12 years until a bootleg copy was aired by TV host Gerlado Rivera in 1975.
“Keeping it from the public fuelled conspiracy theories that the government had something to hide” says CBS News.
Yet despite being one of the most analysed, watched and talked about films of all time, Zapruder, who died in 1970, never profited from it himself. Finally in 1999, the government agreed to pay the Zapruder family $16 million to preserve the film in the National Archives.
Could JFK have survived?
For all the competing conspiracy theories, there is a remarkable acceptance of one point: President Kennedy did die on 22 November 1963. “Not even the crankiest crank argues that JFK is hiding out in a Boca pad with Jimmy Hoffa and DB Cooper,” says Vanity Fair.
But on this point too there is room for disagreement on the details. Some believe that the president was still alive when he arrived at Parkland Hospital; others that he was dead before the final shot had been fired. Establishing the precise moment of his death is difficult, not only because of the chaos in the aftermath of the shooting, but also because there is no clear-cut definition of life and death in cases such as JFK’s.
“The time of death was fixed at 1pm, as an approximation,” the Warren Commission stated, “since it was impossible to determine the precise moment when life left the President.”
The report suggested that JFK could have survived the neck wound caused by the first shot, but not the brain damage that resulted from the second. “From a medical viewpoint, President Kennedy was alive when he arrived at Parkland Hospital,” it said. “The doctors observed that he had a heart beat and was making some respiratory efforts. But his condition was hopeless, and the extraordinary efforts of the doctors to save him could not help but to have been unavailing.”
But the discovery of the President Kennedy film logbook has lent credence to the idea that JFK may have survived.
Handed over to Gizmodo’s Matt Novak and painstakingly produced by White House projectionist Paul Fischer, the logbook details every single film shown in the White House as well as the names and details of those who attended.
According to the logbook, “a film was screened at the White House on November 29, 1963 for twenty people,” says Novak.
Fischer wrote it down as “Little John Birthday Party,” “presumably referring to John F. Kennedy Jr., born on November 25, 1960,” he adds.
But incredibly both President Kennedy and the First Lady are listed as being in attendance at the screening, which took place a week after the President’s death.
“We might be able to chalk it up as Fischer being exhausted and confused or maybe it was written in advance,” says Novak. But the meticulous nature of Fischer’s record keeping seems to suggest that would be unlikely.
“Did JFK somehow survive and live out his life under an assumed name in Cuba?” asks Novak.
“That seems unlikely, given the autopsy photos. But it probably wouldn’t be the weirdest conspiracy theory out there.”
What happened to Lee Harvey Oswald?
Less than an hour after Kennedy was assassinated, a police officer named JD Tippit stopped Oswald, who shot him at point blank range. Oswald, a 24-year-old former marine who had defected to the Soviet Union and returned to the US with a Russian wife the previous year, was later apprehended at a nearby cinema.
Two days later, when he was being transported from police headquarters to a more secure county jail, Oswald himself was shot. Jack Ruby, a nightclub owner, emerged from a crowd of police and reporters, who had gathered to see Oswald taken away, and fired a pistol into his stomach. Oswald was taken to Parkland Hospital and died just ten feet away from the room where Kennedy had died two days before.
Some believe Oswald was killed in order to stop him from revealing a larger conspiracy theory. Ruby claimed he was so outraged by the president’s death that he had suffered “psychomotor epilepsy” and shot Oswald unconsciously. However, he was found guilty of murder with malice. Although he was initially sentenced to die, a court of appeal later ordered a retrial and he died of lung cancer in 1967 before it could be held.
I have read many conspiracy theory books and articles on the assassination of JFK. I have even written a couple of articles myself on the subject. There is a famous saying made by Benjamin Franlin in 1735 from Poor Richard’s Almanac, which that “three may keep a secret if two are dead.” If you believe this saying to be true , then you know that there is no way that the assassination of JFK was a conspiracy. I have stated and I firmly believe that the only conspiracy was the cover up of poor performance of the secret services performance. One of the books I read on the conspiracy was written from the perspective of the secret service. It was a white wash plain and simple. All you had to do was watch theZapruder Film of the assassination of JFK in Dealey Plaza, to know that they dropped the ball plain and simple. You could see from their reactions that they were ill prepared to handle the shooting. Their reaction times were shit. The agent sitting in the right front seat did not respond at all and the driver came to almost a complete stop after the first shot was fired, instead of speeding up. If he had speeded up, there is no way that Lee Harvey Oswald (LHO) would have had time to get off the second and third shots. The first shot that hit JFK was surviveable, which was the second shot fired. The whole shit storm happened because first they did not check the windows to make sure they were all closed on the route, they picked a route where the car had to slow way down too much and they did not use a bubble or have agents on the back of the car. Then to top it off the driver fucked up. It was a shit show, so the secret service did what any government agency does under these circumstances and that is they covered shit up. That is your conspiracy plain and simple. The secret service handed JFK on a platter to LHO.
leadstories.com, “Fact Check: NO Evidence Presidents Lincoln And Kennedy Were Assassinated For Trying To End Federal Reserve.” By Alexis Tereszcuk; theweek.co.uk, “Who killed JFK? The Kennedy conspiracy theories: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated 55 years ago sparking decades of speculation.”; politifact.com, “No, JFK did not plan to end the Federal Reserve.” By Terreri Ramos; presidency.uscb.edu, “Executive Order 11110—Amendment of Executive Order No. 10289 as Amended, Relating to the Performance of Certain Functions Affecting the Department of the Treasury.”; foundationfortruthinlaw.org, “JFK vs. Federal Reserve.” By Cathe Rick;
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