I have written several articles on postings related to politics. A list of links have been provided at bottom of this article for your convenience. This article will, however address different aspects on these political events.
Mark Levin on Life Liberty and Levin broached the subject of The Biden-Sanders Platform and how closely it emulated the Communist Constitution of 1936. While he did introduce the subject, he was limited in how thoroughly he could discuss it. I feel that covering this in a more thorough manner is warranted. The official platform covers over a 100 pages, so I won’t reproduce it here. But I did find summary of the key points which I will include below.
The Biden-Sanders Unity Task Force was created in the spring after Sanders suspended his campaign, effectively making Biden the nominee. Biden is polling well ahead of Trump nationally and in key states, but he suffers from a lack of enthusiasm for his candidacy, especially from younger and progressive voters. The unity task force was meant to give the left wing of the party a voice in the document typically written by the winning primary team. The final document is not everything progressives had hoped for, but it acknowledges many of their priorities while giving as little ammunition as possible to the president and the GOP.
Other policy proposals in the paper include:
– Re-opening of the Affordable Care Act marketplaces, even outside the normal enrollment system, making it easier for people to buy overage.
– Medicare eligibility at 60, instead of the current 65 years of age.
– A “platinum level” public health care plan with low fees and no deductibles. During the pandemic, low-income people would automatically be enrolled in it at no cost to them.
– Free testing, vaccine and treatment for COVID-19.
– End to “the era of mass incarceration” and to the war on drugs, the decriminalization of marijuana and federal legalization of pot for medical use.
– A ban on chokeholds and carotid holds.
– Ending cash bail and withholding of funds to states that continue to use it.
– Barring for-profit private charter schools from receiving federal funding.
– Establish universal pre-K for children ages 3 and 4 and expand the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit to help families afford child care.
– Ensure employers provide a minimum of 12 weeks of paid family and medical leave; specifically during the pandemic, establish paid sick leave protections for all workers including contractors, gig workers, domestic workers and self-employed workers.
– Assuring unpaid family caregivers are not punished with lower Social Security benefits because of years spent caring for loved ones.
– A Homeowner and Renter Bill of Rights to protect families from “abusive lenders and landlords.” Legal support for wrongful evictions.
– Keep the Obama-era Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals intact, which shields nearly 700,000 immigrants who were brought to the U.S. illegally as minors from deportation.
– Path to citizenship for nearly 11 million people living in the U.S.
– No eradication of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), but greater accountability for ICE and Customs and Border Patrol for “inhumane and unlawful treatment” of immigrants.
– Eliminating carbon pollution from power plants by 2035.
– 500 million new solar panels and 60,000 made-in-America wind turbines.
– Transition the entire U.S. fleet of 500,000 school buses to U.S.-made, zero emissions alternatives within five years.
The recommendations reflected the influence of party progressives, who failed to get Sanders, a democratic socialist of Vermont, the nomination but who represent the energy – and quite possibly, the future – of the party.
But the proposal also has a pragmatic undertone. The phrases “Medicare for All,” “Green New Deal” and “cancel college debt,” all signature Sanders issues, do not appear in the document. Instead, the task forces offer plans to address health, climate change and education in ways that are surely aspirational but not dead-on-arrival in Congress.
Instead of recommending replacing the current public-private health care system with a single-payer operation, for example, the paper recommends building on the Affordable Care Act with a public option. Because of the high unemployment rate from the COVID-19 pandemic, the document says the federal government should pay the price of often-costly premiums unemployed people now pay under the COBRA health insurance law, passed under the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, to continue their health insurance.
Instead of the Green New Deal touted by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, the freshman New York Democrat who personifies the newly leftward movement of the Democratic Party, the document calls for regulations and financial incentives to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Ocasio-Cortez is a co-chairwoman of the climate change task force of the unity committee.
Nor would there be free public college tuition for all and a cancellation of all student debt, as Sanders proposed. The unity document recommends free public college and university tuition for students from families earning $125,000 a year or less and up to $10,000 in student debt relief per borrower to alleviate the financial hit caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The paper also reflects the nation’s new focus on racial justice as well as the steady demographic movement of the country toward majority-minority status. Every topical segment of the paper – from education and criminal justice reform to the economy and health – notes the disproportionate pain felt by African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans. The second line of the document, a section on climate change, name-checks Puerto Rico as a place hit harshly by the effects of climate change.
On Wednesday June 12, 2019, 2020 hopeful Bernie Sanders delivered a major speech about Democratic Socialism.
Sanders understands that many Americans view the term “socialist” as a “slur.” He was eager for an opportunity to clear up some of the myths and allow us to see how great socialism really can be.
Sanders devoted most of his speech to railing about the oligarchs and warning us about how dangerous Trump is, all the while positioning himself as the solution Americans have been searching for. He told supporters, “In 1944, FDR proposed an economic bill of rights but died a year later and was never able to fulfill that vision.” Sanders then presented himself as a modern day FDR and said he hopes to complete the work which FDR began.
Finally, Sanders introduces the centerpiece of his platform, which he calls “a 21st Century Economic Bill of Rights.”
However, there’s something deeply disturbing about Sanders’ proposal. In an appearance on Hannity, political commentator and historian Mark Levin points out that Sanders has “stolen his agenda from the 1936 Soviet Constitution.”
Here is an excerpt from Sanders’ speech:
A Bill of Rights that establishes once and for all that every American, regardless of his or her income in entitled to:
- The right to a decent job that pays a living wage
- The right to quality health care
- The right to a complete education
- The right to affordable housing
- The right to a clean environment
- The right to a secure retirement
These six “rights,” which define Sanders’ platform, are indistinguishable from the rights identified in the 1936 Soviet Constitution, which is also known as the Stalin Constitution. (Please read Articles 118-122 of this constitution. See in the addendum section below)
As you can see that there are many similarities between the 1936 document and many of the concepts of the Biden-Sanders manifesto. But this is where the similarities end. While our leaders are crooked and ruthless, they are not anywhere near ruthless leader that Stalin was. I just finished an Article comparing Kamala Harris with Joseph Stalin, which I will link below. So I won’t rehash this subject. Stalin had a comprehensive document, that sounded wonderful on paper, however, he chose not to follow it. Things will be different in the U.S. If we stay with the more moderate document that I have discussed, our economy may not be destroyed. However, we will be one step closer to a Socialist country. I predict that taxes will increase more, and the cost of fossil fuels will increase, so heating and transportation costs will go up. All I know is that with the Harris-Biden administration, we are in for a bumpy ride. I hope he does not reverse all the accomplishments of President Trump, especially in the middle east and the border wall between Mexico and the U.S. I still haven’t given up the idea of leaving America.
usnews.com, “Biden, Sanders Release Progressive Unity Platform for Democratic Party,” By Susan Milligan; Stalin’s Constitution of the USSR, Moscow, USSR, December 1936; redstate.com, “Bernie Sanders’ ‘Economic Bill of Rights’ Taken Nearly Verbatim From Stalin’s 1936 Soviet Constitution,” By Elizabeth Vaughn; nytimes.com, “6 Takeaways From the Biden-Sanders Joint Task Force Proposals,” By Maggie Astor, Lisa Friedman, Dana Goldstein, Zolan Kanno-Youngs, Margot Sanger-Katz and Jim Tankersley;
Stalin’s Constitution of the USSR
ARTICLE 1. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of workers and peasants.
ARTICLE 2. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies, which grew and attained strength as a result of the overthrow of the landlords and capitalists and the achievement of the dictatorship of the proletariat, constitute the political foundation of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 3. In the U.S.S.R. all power belongs to the working people of town and country as represented by the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies.
ARTICLE 4. The socialist system of economy and the socialist ownership of the means and instruments of production firmly established as a result of the abolition of the capitalist system of economy, the abrogation of private ownership of the means and instruments of production and the abolition of the exploitation of man by man, constitute’ the economic foundation of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 5. Socialist property in the U.S.S.R. exists either in the form of state property (the possession of the whole people), or in the form of cooperative and collective-farm property (property of a collective farm or property of a cooperative association).
ARTICLE 6. The land, its natural deposits, waters, forests, mills, factories, mines, rail, water and air transport, banks, post, telegraph and telephones, large state-organized agricultural enterprises (state farms, machine and tractor stations and the like) as well as municipal enterprises and the
bulk of the dwelling houses in the cities and industrial localities, are state property, that is, belong to the whole people.
ARTICLE 7. Public enterprises in collective farms and cooperative organizations, with their livestock and implements, the products of the collective farms and cooperative organizations, as well as their common buildings, constitute the common socialist property of the collective farms
and cooperative organizations. In addition to its basic income from the public collective-farm enterprise, every household in a collective farm has for its personal use a small plot of land attached to the dwelling and, as its personal property, a subsidiary establishment on the plot, a dwelling house, livestock, poultry and minor agricultural implements in accordance with the statutes of the agricultural artel.
ARTICLE 8. The land occupied by collective farms is secured to them for their use free of charge and for an unlimited time, that is, in perpetuity.
ARTICLE 9. Alongside the socialist system of economy, which is the predominant form of economy in the U.S.S.R., the law permits the small private economy of individual peasants and handicraftsman based on their personal labor and precluding the exploitation of the labor of
ARTICLE 10. The right of citizens to personal ownership of their incomes from work and of their savings, of their dwelling houses and subsidiary household economy, their household furniture and utensils and articles of personal use and convenience, as well as the right of inheritance of personal property of citizens, is protected by law.
ARTICLE 11. The economic life of the U.S.S.R. is determined and directed by the state national economic plan with the aim of increasing the public wealth, of steadily improving the material conditions of the working people and raising their cultural level, of consolidating the
independence of the U.S.S.R. and strengthening its defensive capacity.
ARTICLE 12. In the U.S.S.R. work is a duty and a matter of honor for every able-bodied citizen,in accordance with the principle: “He who does not work, neither shall he eat.”
ARTICLE 13. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a federal state, formed on the basis of the voluntary association of Soviet Socialist Republics having equal rights, namely:
The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Azerbaidjan Soviet Socialist Republic
The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
The Tadjik Soviet Socialist Republic
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic
The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic.
ARTICLE 14. The jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as represented by its highest organs of state authority and organs of government, covers:
a. Representation of the Union in international relations, conclusion and ratification of treaties with other states [amended: and the establishment of the general character of the relations between the Union Republic and foreign States];
b. Questions of war and peace;
c. Admission of new republics into the U.S.S.R.;
d. Control over the observance of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. and ensuring conformity of the Constitutions of the Union Republics with the Constitution of the U.S.S.R.;
e. Confirmation of alterations of boundaries between Union Republics;
f. Confirmation of the formation of new territories and regions and also of new Autonomous Republics within Union Republics;
g. Organization of the defense of the U.S.S.R. and direction of all the armed forces of the U.S.S.R.[amended: the establishment of the guiding principles of the organization of the military formations of the Union Republics.];
h. Foreign trade on the basis of state monopoly;
i. Safeguarding the security of the state;
j. Establishment of the national economic plans of the U.S.S.R.;
k. Approval of the single state budget of the U.S.S.R. as well as of the taxes and revenues which go to the all-Union, Republican and local budgets;
l. Administration of the banks, industrial and agricultural establishments and enterprises and trading enterprises of all-Union importance;
m. Administration of transport and, communications;
n. Direction of the monetary and credit system;
o. Organization of state insurance;
p. Raising and granting of loans;
q. Establishment of the basic principles for the use of land as well as for the use of natural deposits, forests and waters;
r. Establishment of the basic principles in the spheres of education and public health;
s. Organization of a uniform system of national economic statistics;
t. Establishment of the principles of labor legislation;
u. Legislation on the judicial system and judicial procedure; criminal and civil codes;
v. Laws on citizenship of the Union; laws on the rights of foreigners;
w. Issuing of all-Union acts of amnesty.
ARTICLE 15. The sovereignty of the Union Republics is limited only within the provisions set forth in Article 14 of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. Outside of these provisions, each Union Republic exercises state authority independently. The U.S.S.R. protects the sovereign rights of the Union Republics.
ARTICLE 16. Each Union Republic has its own Constitution, which takes account of the specific features of the Republic and is drawn up in full conformity with the Constitution of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 17. To every Union Republic is reserved the right freely to secede from the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 18. The territory of a Union Republic may not be altered without its consent. [amended:
a. Each Union Republic has the right to enter into direct relations with foreign states, to conclude agreements with them and exchange diplomatic and consular representatives with them.
b. Each Union Republic has its republican military formation.]
ARTICLE 19. The laws of the U.S.S.R. have the same force within the territory of every Union Republic.
ARTICLE 20. In the event of a discrepancy between a law of a Union Republic and an all-Union law, the all-Union law prevails.
ARTICLE 21. A single Union citizenship is established for all citizens of the U.S.S.R. Every citizen of a Union Republic is a citizen of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 22. The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic consists of the Altai, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Ordjonikidze, Maritime and Khabarovsk Territories; the Archangel, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo, Irkutsk, Kalinin, Kirov, Kuibyshev, Kursk, Leningrad, Molotov, Moscow, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Saratov, Sverdlovsk,
Smolensk, Stalingrad, Tambov, Tula, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Chkalov and Yaroslavl Regions; The Tatar, Bashkir, Daghestan, Buryat-Mongolian, Kabardino-Balkarian, Kalmyk, Komi, Crimean, Mari, Mordovian, Volga German, North Ossetian, Udmurt, Checheno-Ingush, Chuvash and
Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics; and the Adygei, Jewish, Karachai, Oirot, Khakass and Cherkess Autonomous Regions.
ARTICLE 23. The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Vinnitsa, Volynsk, Voroshilovgrad, Dnepropetrovsk, Drogobych, Zhitomir, Zaporozhe, Izmail, Kamenets-Podolsk, Kiev, Kirovograd, Lvov, Nikolaev, Odessa, Poltava, Rovno, Stalino, Stanislav, Sumy, Tarnopol, Kharkov, Chemigov and Chernovitsy Regions.
ARTICLE 24. The Azerbaidian Soviet Socialist Republic includes the, Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region.
ARTICLE 25. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Abkhazian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Adjar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the South Ossetian Autonomous Region.
ARTICLE 26. The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, Ferghana, and Khorezm Regions, and the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
ARTICLE 27. The Tadjik Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Garm, Kuliab, Leninabad and Stalinabad Regions, and the Gomo-Badakhshan Autonomous Region.
ARTICLE 28. The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Akmolinsk, Aktyubinsk, Alma-Ata, East Kazakhstan, Guryev, Djambul, West Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Kzyl-Orda, Kustanai, Pavlodar, North Kazakhstan. Semipalatinsk, and South Kazakhstan Regions.
ARTICLE 29. The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Baranovichi, Byelostok, Brest, Vileika, Vitebsk, Gomel, Minsk, Moghilev, Pinsk and Polessye Regions.
ARTICLE 29a. The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Ashkhabad, Krasnovodsk, Mari, Tashauz and Chardzhou Regions.
ARTICLE 29b. The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Dzhalal-Abad, Issyk-Kul, Osh, Tian-Shan and Frunze Regions.
ARTICLE 30. The highest organ of state authority of the U.S.S.R. is the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 31. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. exercises all rights vested in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in accordance with Article 14 of the Constitution, in so far as they do not, by virtue of the Constitution, come within the jurisdiction of organs of the U.S.S.R. that are
accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., that is, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. and the People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 32. The legislative power of the U.S.S.R. is exercised exclusively by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 33. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. consists of two Chambers: the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities.
ARTICLE 34. The Soviet of the Union is elected by the citizens of the U.S.S.R. according to electoral areas on the basis of one deputy for every 300,000 of the population.
ARTICLE 35. The Soviet of Nationalities is elected by the citizens of the U.S.S.R. according to Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Regions and national areas on the basis of twenty-five deputies from each Union Republic, eleven deputies from each Autonomous republic, five deputies from each Autonomous Region and one deputy from each national area.
ARTICLE 36. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is elected for a term of four years.
ARTICLE 37. Both Chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities, have equal rights.
ARTICLE 38. The Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities have an equal right to initiate legislation.
ARTICLE 39. A law is considered adopted if passed by both Chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. by a simple majority vote in each.
ARTICLE 40. Laws passed by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are published in the languages of the Union Republics over the signatures of the President and Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 41. Sessions of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities begin and terminate simultaneously.
ARTICLE 42. The Soviet of the Union elects a Chairman of the Soviet of the Union and two Vice-Chairmen.
ARTICLE 43. The Soviet of Nationalities elects a Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities and two Vice-Chairmen.
ARTICLE 44. The Chairmen of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities preside over the sittings of the respective Chambers and direct the procedure of these bodies.
ARTICLE 45. Joint sittings of both Chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are resided over alternately by the Chairman of the Soviet of the Union and the Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities.
ARTICLE 46. Sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are convened by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. twice a year. Special sessions are convened by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. at its discretion or on the demand of one of the Union Republics.
ARTICLE 47. In the event of disagreement between the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of
Nationalities, the question is referred for settlement to a conciliation commission formed on a
parity basis. If the conciliation commission fails to arrive at an agreement, or if its decision fails
to satisfy one of the Chambers, the question is considered for a second time by the Chambers.
Failing agreement between the two Chambers, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the
U.S.S.R. dissolves the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and orders new elections.
ARTICLE 48. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. at a joint sitting of both Chambers elects the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. consisting of a President of the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., sixteen Vice-Presidents, a Secretary of the Presidium and
twenty-four members of the Presidium. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for all its activities.
ARTICLE 49. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.:
a. Convenes the sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.;
b. Interprets laws of the U.S.S.R. in operation, issues decrees;
c. Dissolves the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. in conformity with Article 47 of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. and orders new elections;
d. Conducts referendums on its own initiative or on the demand of one of the Union Republics;
e. Annuls decisions and orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. and of the Councils of People’s Commissars of the Union Republics in case they do not conform to law; f. In the intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., relieves of their posts and appoints People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. on the recommendation of the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R., subject to subsequent confirmation by the Supreme Soviet of the
g. Awards decorations and confers titles of honor of the U.S.S.R.;
h. Exercises the right of pardon;
i. Appoints and removes the higher commands of the armed forces of the U.S.S.R.;
j. In the intervals between sessions of. the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., proclaims a state of war in the event of armed attack on the U.S.S.R., or whenever necessary to fulfill international treaty obligations concerning mutual defense against aggression
k. Orders general or partial mobilization;
l. Ratifies international, treaties;
m. Appoints and recalls plenipotentiary representatives of the U.S.S.R. to foreign states;
n. Receives the credentials and letters of recall of diplomatic representatives accredited to it by foreign states;
o. Proclaims martial law in separate localities or throughout the U.S.S.R. in the interests of the defense of the U.S.S.R. or for the purpose of ensuring public order and state security.
ARTICLE 50. The Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities elect Credentials
Commissions which verify the credentials of the members of the respective Chambers.
On the recommendation of the Credentials Commissions, the Chambers decide either to endorse
the credentials or to annul the election of the deputies concerned.
ARTICLE 51. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., when it deems necessary, appoints
commissions of inquiry and investigation on any matter. It is the duty of all institutions and public servants to comply with the demands of these commissions and to submit to them the necessary materials and documents.
ARTICLE 52. A member of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. may not be prosecuted or
arrested without the consent of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., and during the period when
the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is not in session, without the consent of the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 53. On the expiration of the term of office of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., or
after the dissolution of the Supreme Soviet prior to the expiration of its term of office, the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. retains its powers until the formation of a new
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. by the newly-elected Supreme Soviet of the
ARTICLE 54. On the expiration of the term of office of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., or
in the event of its dissolution prior to the expiration of its term of office, the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. orders new elections to be held within a period not exceeding
two months from the date of expiration of the term of office or dissolution of the Supreme Soviet
of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 55. The newly-elected Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is convened by the outgoing
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. not later than one month after the elections.
ARTICLE 56. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. at a joint sitting of both Chambers, appoints
the Government of the U.S.S.R., namely, the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 57. The highest organ of state authority of a Union Republic is the Supreme Soviet of
the Union Republic.
ARTICLE 58. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic is elected by the citizens of the Republic
for a term of four years.
The basis of representation is established by the Constitution of the Union Republic.
ARTICLE 59. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic is the sole legislative organ of the Republic.
ARTICLE 60. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic:
a. Adopts the Constitution of the Republic and amends it in conformity with Article
16 of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R.;
b. Confirms the Constitutions of the Autonomous Republics forming part of it and
defines the boundaries of their territories;
c. Approves the national economic plan and also the budget of the Republic;
d. Exercises the right of amnesty and pardon of citizens sentenced by the judicial
organs of the Union Republic.
e. [amended: Establishes the representation of the Union Republics in international
f. [amended: Establishes the method of the creation of military formations the
ARTICLE 61. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic elects the Presidium of the Supreme
Soviet of the Union Republic, consisting of a Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
of the Union Republic, Vice-Chairmen, a Secretary of the Presidium and members of the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic. The powers of the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic are defined by the Constitution of the Union Republic.
Source: Bucknell University 8
ARTICLE 62. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic elects a Chairman and Vice-Chairmen
to conduct its sittings.
ARTICLE 63. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic appoints the Government of the Union
Republic, namely, the Council of People’s Commissars of the Union Republic.
ARTICLE 64. The highest executive and administrative organ of state authority of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics is the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 65. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. is responsible to the
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and accountable to it; and in the intervals between sessions of
the Supreme Soviet it is responsible and accountable to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of
ARTICLE 66. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. issues decisions and orders
on the basis and in pursuance of the laws in operation, and supervises their execution.
ARTICLE 67. Decisions and Orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. are
binding throughout the territory of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 68. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.:
a. Coordinates and directs the work of the All-Union and Union-Republican
People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R. and of other institutions, economic and
cultural, under its administration;
b. Adopts measures to carry out the national economic plan and the state budget, and
to strengthen the credit and monetary system;
c. Adopts measures for the maintenance of public order, for the protection of the
interests of the state, and for the safeguarding of the rights of citizens;
d. Exercises general guidance in respect of relations with foreign states;
e. Fixes the annual contingent of citizens to be called up for military service and
directs the general organization and development of the armed forces of the country;
f. Sets up, whenever necessary, special committees and Central Administrations
under the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. for matters concerning
economic, cultural and defense organization and development.
ARTICLE 69. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. has the right, in respect of
those branches of administration and economy which come within the jurisdiction of the
U.S.S.R., to suspend decisions and orders of the Councils of People’s Commissars of the Union
Republics and to annul orders and instructions of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 70. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. is appointed by the Supreme
Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and consists of:
The Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.;
The Vice-Chairmen of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.;
The Chairman of the State Planning Commission of the U.S.S.R.;
The People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.;
The Chairman of the Committee on Arts;
The Chairman of the Committee on Higher Education;
The Chairman of the Board of the State Bank.
ARTICLE 71. The Government of the U.S.S.R. or a People’s Commissar of the U.S.S.R. to
whom a question of a member of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is addressed must give a
verbal or written reply in the respective Chamber within a period not exceeding three days.
ARTICLE 72. The People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. direct the branches of state
administration which come within the jurisdiction of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 73. The People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. issue, within the limits of the
jurisdiction of the respective People’s Commissariats, orders and instructions on the basis and in
pursuance of the laws in operation, and also of decisions and orders of the Council of People’s
Commissars of the U.S.S.R., and supervise their execution.
ARTICLE 74. The People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R. are either All-Union or UnionRepublican Commissariats.
ARTICLE 75. The All-Union People’s Commissariats direct the branches of state administration
entrusted to them throughout the territory of the U.S.S.R. either directly or through bodies
appointed by them.
ARTICLE 76. The Union-Republican People’s Commissariats, as a rule, direct the branches of
state administration entrusted to them through the corresponding People’s Commissariats of the
Union Republics; they administer directly only a definite and limited number of enterprises
according to a list confirmed by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 77. The following People’s Commissariats are All-Union People’s Commissariats:
Defense [amended: moved to 78], Foreign Affairs [amended: moved to 78], Foreign Trade,
Railways, Post and Telegraph and Telephones, Maritime Transport, River Transport, Coal
Industry, Oil Industry, Power Stations, Electrical Industry, Iron and Steel Industry, Non-Ferrous
Metallurgy, Chemical Industry, Aviation Industry, Shipbuilding Industry, Munitions,
Armaments, Heavy Machine-building, Medium Machine-building, General Machine-building,
Navy, Agricultural Procurement, Construction, Paper and Cellulose Industry.
ARTICLE 78. The following People’s Commissariats are Union-Republican People’s
Commissariats: Food Industry, Fish Industry, Meat and Dairy Industry, Light Industry, Textile
Industry, Timber Industry, Agriculture State Grain and Livestock Farms, Finance, Trade, Internal
Affairs, State Security, Justice, Public Health, Building Materials Industry, State Control,
Defense [amended: from 77], Foreign Affairs [amended: from 77]
ARTICLE 79. The highest executive and administrative organ of state authority of a Union
Republic is the Council of People’s Commissars of the Union Republic.
ARTICLE 80. The Council of People’s Commissars of a Union Republic is responsible to the
Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic and accountable to it; and in the intervals between
sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic it is responsible and accountable to the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the respective Union Republic.
ARTICLE 81. The Council of People’s Commissars of a Union Republic issues decisions and
orders on the basis and in pursuance of the laws in operation of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union
Republic, and of the decisions and orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.,
and supervises their execution.
ARTICLE 82. The Council of People’s Commissars of a Union Republic has the right to suspend
decisions and orders of Councils of People’s Commissars of Autonomous Republics, and to
annul decisions and orders of Executive Committees of Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of
Territories, Regions and Autonomous Regions.
ARTICLE 83. The Council of People’s Commissars of a Union Republic is appointed by the
Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic and consists of:
The Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Union Republic;
The Chairman of the State Planning Commission;
The People’s Commissars of:
The Food Industry, Fish Industry, Meat and Dairy Industry, Light Industry, Textile
Industry, Timber Industry, Building Materials Industry, Agriculture, State Grain and
Livestock Farms, Finance, Trade, Internal Affairs, State Security, Justice, Public Health,
State Control, Education, Local Industry, Municipal Economy, Social Maintenance,
Automobile Transport, The Chief of the Arts Administration, The Representatives of the
All-Union People’s Commissariats.
[added: Defense and Foreign Affairs]
ARTICLE 84. The People’s Commissars of a Union Republic direct the branches of state
administration which come under the jurisdiction of the Union Republic.
ARTICLE 85. The People’s Commissars of a Union Republic issue, within the limits of the
jurisdiction of their respective People’s Commissariats, orders and instructions on the basis and
in pursuance of the laws of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union Republic, of the decisions and orders
of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. and that of the Union Republic, and of the
orders and instructions of the Union Republican People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 86. The People’s Commissariats of a Union Republic are either Union-Republican or
ARTICLE 87. The Union-Republican People’s Commissariats direct the branches of state
administration entrusted to them, and are subordinate both to the Council bf People’s
Commissars of the Union Republic and to the corresponding’ Union-Republican People’s
Commissariats of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 88. The Republican People’s Commissariats direct the branches of state
administration entrusted to them and are directly subordinate to the Council of People’s
Commissars of the Union Republic.
ARTICLE 89. The highest organ of state authority of an Autonomous Republic is the Supreme
Soviet of the respective Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
ARTICLE 90. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic is elected by the citizens of the
Republic for a term of four years on the basis of representation established by the Constitution of
the Autonomous Republic.
ARTICLE 91. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic is the sole legislative organ of
the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
ARTICLE 92. Each Autonomous Republic has its own Constitution which takes account of the
specific features of the Autonomous Republic and is drawn up in full conformity with the
Constitution of the Union Republic.
ARTICLE 93. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic elects the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic and appoints the Council of People’s Commissars
of the Autonomous Republic, in accordance with its Constitution.
ARTICLE 94. The organs of state authority in territories, regions, autonomous regions, areas,
districts, cities and rural localities (stations, villages, hamlets, kishlaks, auls) are the Soviets of
Working People’s Deputies.
ARTICLE 95. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of territories, regions, autonomous
regions, areas, districts, cities and rural localities (stations, villages, hamlets, kishlaks, auls) are
elected by the working People of the respective territories, regions, autonomous regions, areas,
districts, cities or rural localities for a term of two years.
ARTICLE 96. The basis of representation for Soviets of Working People’s Deputies is defined
by the Constitutions of the Union Republics.
ARTICLE 97. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies direct the work of the organs of
administration subordinate to them, ensure the maintenance of public order, the observance of
the laws and the protection of the rights of citizens, direct local economic and cultural
organization and development and draw up the local budgets.
ARTICLE 98. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies adopt decisions and issue orders within
the limits of the powers vested in them by the laws of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union Republic.
ARTICLE 99. The executive and administrative organs of the Soviets of Working People’s
Deputies of territories, regions, autonomous’ regions, areas, districts, cities and rural localities are
the Executive Committees elected by them, consisting of a Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, a
Secretary and members.
ARTICLE 100. The executive and administrative organ of rural Soviets of Working People’s
Deputies in small localities, in accordance with the Constitutions of the Union Republics, is the
Chairman, the Vice-Chairman, and the Secretary elected by them.
ARTICLE 101. The executive organs of the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies are directly
accountable both to the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies which elected them and to the
executive organ of the superior Soviet of Working People’s Deputies.
ARTICLE 102. In the U.S.S.R. justice is administered by the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., the
Supreme Courts of the Union Republics, the Territorial and the Regional courts, the courts of the
Autonomous Republics and the Autonomous Regions, the Area courts, the special courts of the
U.S.S.R. established by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., and the People’s Courts.
ARTICLE 103. In all courts cases are tried with the participation of people’s assessors, except in
cases specially provided for by law.
ARTICLE 104. The Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. is the highest judicial organ. The Supreme
Court of the U.S.S.R. is charged with the supervision of the judicial activities of all the judicial
organs of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union Republics.
ARTICLE 105. The Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. and the special courts of the U.S.S.R. are
elected by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for a term of five years.
ARTICLE 106. The Supreme Courts of the Union Republics are elected by the Supreme Soviets
of the Union Republics for a term of five years.
ARTICLE 107. The Supreme Courts of the Autonomous Republics are elected by the Supreme
Soviets of the Autonomous Republics for a term of five years.
ARTICLE 108. The Territorial and the Regional courts, the courts of the Autonomous Regions
and the Area courts are elected by the Territorial, Regional or Area Soviets of Working People’s
Deputies or by the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Regions for a term
of five years.
ARTICLE 109. People’s Courts are elected by the citizens of the district on the basis of
universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot for a term of three years.
ARTICLE 110. Judicial proceedings are conducted in the language of the Union Republic,
Autonomous Republic or Autonomous Region, persons not knowing this language being
guaranteed every opportunity of fully acquainting themselves with the material of the case
through an interpreter and likewise the right to use their own language in court.
ARTICLE 111. In all courts of the U.S.S.R. cases are heard in public, unless otherwise. provided
for by law, and the accused is guaranteed the right to be defended by Counsel.
ARTICLE 112. Judges are independent and subject only to the law.
ARTICLE 113. Supreme supervisory power over the strict execution of the laws by all People’s
Commissariats and institutions subordinated to them, as well as by public servants and citizens
of the U.S.S.R., is vested in the Procurator of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 114. The Procurator of the U.S.S.R. is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the
U.S.S.R. for a term of seven years.
ARTICLE 115. Procurators of Republics, Territories and Regions, as well as Procurators of
Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Regions, are appointed by the Procurator of the
U.S.S.R. for a term of five years.
ARTICLE 116. Area, district and city procurators are appointed for a term of five years by the Procurators of the Union Republics, subject to the approval of the Procurator of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 117. The organs of the Procurator’s Office perform their functions independently of
any local organs whatsoever, being subordinate solely to the Procurator of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 118. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to work, that is, are guaranteed the right
to employment and payment for their work in accordance With its quantity and quality.
The right to work is ensured by the socialist organization of the national economy, the steady
growth of the productive forces of Soviet society, the elimination of the possibility of economic
crises, and the abolition of unemployment.
ARTICLE 119. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to rest and leisure. The right to rest and
leisure is ensured by the reduction of the working day to seven hours for the overwhelming
majority of the workers, the institution of annual vacations with full pay for workers and
employees and the provision of a wide network of sanatoria, rest homes and clubs for the
accommodation of the working people.
ARTICLE 120. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to maintenance in old age and also in case
of sickness or loss of capacity to work. This right is ensured by the extensive development of
social insurance of workers and employees at state expense, free medical service for the working
people and the provision of a wide network of health resorts for the use of the working people.
ARTICLE 121. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to education. This right is ensured by
universal, compulsory elementary education; by education, including higher education, being
free of charge; by the system of state stipends for the overwhelming majority of students in the
universities and colleges; by instruction in schools being conducted in the native language, and
by the organization in the factories, state farms, machine and tractor stations and collective farms
of free vocational, technical and agronomic training for the working people.
ARTICLE 122. Women in the U.S.S.R. are accorded equal rights with men in all spheres of
economic, state, cultural, social and political life. The possibility of exercising these rights is
ensured to women by granting them an equal right with men to work, payment for work, rest and
leisure, social insurance and education, and by state protection of the interests of mother and
child, prematernity and maternity leave with full pay, and the provision of a wide network of
maternity homes, nurseries and kindergartens.
ARTICLE 123. Equality of rights of citizens of the U.S.S.R., irrespective of their nationality or
race, in all spheres of economic, state, cultural, social and political life, is an indefeasible law.
Any direct or indirect restriction of the rights of, or, conversely, any establishment of direct or
indirect privileges for, citizens on account of their race or nationality, as well as any advocacy of
racial or national exclusiveness or hatred and contempt, is punishable by law.
ARTICLE 124. In order to ensure to citizens freedom of conscience, the church in the U.S.S.R.
is separated from the state, and the school from the church. Freedom of religious worship and
freedom of antireligious propaganda is recognized for all citizens.
ARTICLE 125. In conformity with the interests of the working people, and in order to strengthen
the socialist system, the citizens of the U.S.S.R. are guaranteed by law:
a. freedom of speech;
b. freedom of the press;
c. freedom of assembly, including the holding of mass meetings;
d. freedom of street processions and demonstrations.
These civil rights are ensured by placing at the disposal of the working people and their
organizations printing presses, stocks of paper, public buildings, the streets, communications
facilities and other material requisites for the exercise of these rights.
ARTICLE 126. In conformity with the interests of the working people, and in order to develop
the organizational initiative and political activity of the masses of the people, citizens of the
U.S.S.R. are ensured the right to unite in public organizations–trade unions, cooperative
associations, youth organizations,’ sport and defense organizations, cultural, technical and
scientific societies; and the most active and politically most conscious citizens in the ranks of the
working class and other sections of the working people unite in the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), which is the vanguard of the working people in their struggle to
strengthen and develop the socialist system and is the leading core of all organizations of the
working people, both public and state.
ARTICLE 127. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. are guaranteed inviolability of the person. No person
may be placed under arrest except by decision of a court or with the sanction of a procurator.
ARTICLE 128. The inviolability of the homes of citizens and privacy of correspondence are
protected by law.
ARTICLE 129. The U.S.S.R. affords the right of asylum to foreign citizens persecuted for
defending the interests of the working people, or for their scientific activities, or for their
struggle for national liberation.
ARTICLE 130. It is the duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R. to abide by the Constitution of the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to observe the laws, to maintain labor discipline, honestly to
perform public duties, and to respect the rules of socialist intercourse.
ARTICLE 131. It is the duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R. to safeguard and strengthen public,
socialist property as the sacred and inviolable foundation of the Soviet system, as the source of
the wealth and might of the country, as the source of the prosperous and cultured life of all the
working people. Persons committing offenses against public, socialist property are enemies of the people.
ARTICLE 132. Universal military service is law. Military service in the Workers’ and Peasants’
Red Army is an honorable duty of the citizens of the U.S.S.R.
ARTICLE 133. To defend the fatherland is the sacred duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R.
Treason to the country–violation of the oath of allegiance, desertion to the enemy, impairing the
military power of the state, espionage is punishable with all the severity of the law as the most
heinous of crimes.
ARTICLE 134. Members of all Soviets of Working People’s Deputies–of the Supreme Soviet of
the U.S.S.R., the Supreme Soviets of the Union Republics, the Soviets of Working People’s
Deputies of the Territories and Regions, the Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Republics, and
Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of Autonomous Regions, area, district, city and rural
(station, village, hamlet, kishlak, aul) Soviets of Working People’s Deputies–are chosen by the
electors on the basis of universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot.
ARTICLE 135. Elections of deputies are universal: all citizens of the U.S.S.R. who have reached
the age of eighteen, irrespective of race or nationality, religion, educational and residential
qualifications, social origin, property status or past activities, have the right to vote in the
election of deputies and to be elected, with the exception of insane persons and persons who
have been convicted by a court of law and whose sentences include deprivation of electoral
ARTICLE 136. Elections of deputies are equal: each citizen has one vote; all citizens participate
in elections on an equal footing.
ARTICLE 137. Women have the right to elect and be elected on equal terms with men.
ARTICLE 138. Citizens serving in the Red Army have the right to elect and be elected on equal
terms with all other citizens.
ARTICLE 139. Elections of deputies are direct: all Soviets of Working People’s Deputies, from
rural and city Soviets of Working People’s Deputies to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.,
inclusive, are elected by the citizens by direct vote.
ARTICLE 140. Voting at elections of deputies is secret.
ARTICLE 141. Candidates for election are nominated according to electoral areas. The right to
nominate candidates is secured to public organizations and societies of the working people:
Communist Party organizations, trade unions, cooperatives, youth organizations and cultural
ARTICLE 142. It is the duty of every deputy to report to his electors on his work and on the
work of the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies, and he is liable to be recalled at any time in
the manner established by law upon decision of a majority of the electors.
ARTICLE 143. The arms of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics consist of a sickle and
hammer against a globe depicted in the rays of the sun and surrounded by ears of grain with the
inscription “Workers of All Countries, Unite!” in the languages of the Union Republics. At the
top of the arms is a five-pointed star. Socialist Republics is of red cloth with the sickle and
hammer depicted in gold in the upper corner near the staff and above them a five-pointed red star
bordered in gold. The ratio of the width to the length is 1: 2.
ARTICLE 145. The capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is the City of Moscow.
ARTICLE 146. The Constitution of the U.S.S.R. may be amended only by decision of the
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. adopted by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the votes
cast in each of its Chambers.
6 Takeaways From the Biden-Sanders Joint Task Force Proposals
Signature progressive programs like “Medicare for all” and the Green New Deal did not make it into the recommendations. But Senator Bernie Sanders’s allies pushed some policies to the left. The new policy recommendations for Joseph R. Biden Jr., crafted jointly by allies of Mr. Biden and Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, are the clearest sign yet that the moderate and progressive wings of the Democratic Party are trying to unite far more than they did in 2016.
Health care: Expanding government-run plans, without ‘Medicare for all’
The task force’s recommendations stop far short of Mr. Sanders’s signature health care policy initiative, a single-payer “Medicare for all” system that would enroll all Americans in a generous government-run health plan.
Instead, the task force supports a government-run insurance option that would be offered to all Americans on a sliding scale according to income — and automatically provided to low-income Americans free.
A so-called public option has always been a part of Mr. Biden’s health plan, but the recommendations specify new details, such as a requirement that certain prescription medicines be offered without any out-of-pocket spending by patients. Similar to Mr. Biden’s most recent health proposal, this one would allow Americans to become eligible for Medicare coverage at 60 instead of the current threshold, 65. The document also suggests considering how Medicare could expand its benefits to cover treatment for dental care, vision and hearing loss.
The task force also recommends special insurance options for people during the coronavirus pandemic. For those who lost coverage because they became unemployed, the task force suggests that the federal government pay the full cost of continuing that coverage under the federal law known as COBRA. People without previous coverage would be allowed to buy a new plan with no deductible, at a price determined by their income, or an existing Obamacare plan.
Criminal justice: Broad agreement on many priorities, but not on marijuana
Mr. Biden’s views on criminal justice had already shifted drastically since he helped pass the 1994 crime bill, and the task force’s recommendations reinforce that transformation. They call for eliminating private prisons, ending cash bail and eliminating mandatory minimum sentences, steps that both candidates supported in the primary; eliminating private prisons, in particular, was something Mr. Sanders championed early.
The task force also suggested a federal standard for police departments’ use of force, a national database of police officers who commit misconduct and an end to sentences of life without parole for juvenile offenders.
It did not, however, bridge a notable gap between the Biden and Sanders platforms. The task force called for decriminalizing marijuana and legalizing it at the federal level for medical use, but for letting the states decide whether to legalize it for recreational use. That is the position Mr. Biden held in the primary, in contrast to Mr. Sanders, who supports full legalization.
Climate change: New near-term targets, but no fracking ban
The climate change task force, led by former Secretary of State John Kerry and Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Democrat of New York, declared rising planet-warming emissions a nationwide “emergency.” It also directly tied the effort to reduce fossil fuels to a need to address racial injustices that have led low-income communities to bear a disproportionate level of air and water pollution.
The recommendations make no mention of the Green New Deal, an ambitious plan that Ms. Ocasio-Cortez and other supporters of Mr. Sanders have championed.
There is also no mention of a national ban on fracking, which Mr. Biden has avoided calling for, despite pressure from young climate activists. But there are other signs that progressives on the task force were able to push Mr. Biden to the left.
Specifically, critics of Mr. Biden’s plan to invest $1.7 trillion in order to achieve net-zero emissions before 2050 had complained that his platform included few details on how it would achieve that faraway goal. The recommendations set a number of specific near-term benchmarks that Democrats would promise to reach. They include moving all electric power off fossil fuels by 2035; achieving carbon-neutrality in all new buildings by 2030; and installing 500 million solar panels in the next five years.
The economy: Closing racial gaps and creating jobs programs
The economics recommendations to Mr. Biden include more expansive and expensive plans than he has embraced in the campaign. They are heavily focused on addressing racial inequality and on getting Americans back to work in the wake of the recession caused by the pandemic.
The task force suggested that Mr. Biden consider several plans that his more liberal rivals had championed during the Democratic primaries, though at times it stopped short of endorsing them.
The recommendations call for “a comprehensive agenda for communities of color with ambition that matches the scale of the challenge and with recognition that race-neutral policies are not a sufficient response to race-based disparities.”Election 2020.
The details include asking Mr. Biden to “explore” a so-called baby bonds proposal to provide every child with a government-funded savings account at birth, a policy favored by Darrick Hamilton, an Ohio State University economist who was one of Mr. Sanders’s appointees.
A section on job creation urges consideration of another plan favored by Mr. Sanders’s appointees: a large-scale federal employment program in areas such as infrastructure development. “In order to ensure that everyone who wants to work has a pathway to employment,” the recommendation says, “the government must enact measures to create jobs and jobs programs like those effectively used during the New Deal.”
Education: Rethinking Obama-era priorities
On K-12 education, the task force report represents something of a shift away from the policy commitments of the Obama-era Democratic Party.
Instead of emphasizing standardized tests to drive accountability for teachers and students, the document talks about holistic tests of students’ skills and the importance of schools as community centers that provide a broad array of social services, such as health care and meals.
While the Obama administration was strongly supportive of charter schools, the task force promises to subject charters, which are publicly funded but privately managed, to stricter federal scrutiny, echoing policy plans released by Mr. Sanders and Senator Elizabeth Warren, the Massachusetts Democrat, during the primary.
The document commits to tripling federal aid for low-income schools and to increasing funding for students with disabilities. School desegregation by race and class has emerged in recent years as a major concern for progressives. The task force commits to addressing the problem through strategies like busing and magnet schools, but does not mention a specific amount of funding. (Mr. Biden’s opposition to federally mandated busing was a major campaign issue last year, but he has never opposed voluntary busing.)
While many supporters of Mr. Sanders were excited by his promise of universal free tuition at public four-year colleges, the task force stops short of that commitment. It says instead that public universities should be free for families earning under $125,000 per year, and that community colleges should be free for all.
Immigration: A focus on undoing Trump policies
The report indicated that the immigration agenda of a Biden administration would focus on undoing President Trump’s restrictionist policies, which have been anathema to Democrats.
The task force recommended that Mr. Biden work with Congress to maintain protections for about 700,000 young immigrants known as Dreamers from deportation, a program that Mr. Trump is trying to end. It also recommended ending Mr. Trump’s travel restrictions against 13 countries, most of which have substantial Muslim populations.
The report said Mr. Biden should end a program that forced more than 60,000 migrants to wait in Mexico while their asylum cases wound through immigration courts, and should stop diverting asylum seekers to Central American countries. Mr. Biden should increase the number of refugees who can be allowed into the United States to 125,000 per year, from Mr. Trump’s level of 18,000, and raise that cap over time, the committee said. And it called for ending the national emergency declaration that Mr. Trump has used to siphon billions of dollars in Pentagon funding for a wall along the southwestern border.
The task force stopped short of calling for Immigration and Customs Enforcement to be abolished, as some in the party have called for. Instead, the report recommends increasing oversight of immigration enforcement and border agencies with the creation of an ombudsman and a panel. There was also no suggestion that unauthorized border crossings should be decriminalized and made a civil offense, a change Mr. Sanders has supported, although the committee recommended prioritizing prosecutions of human traffickers.
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